Resources

Growing Resources & Research Reports

The Australian Melon Association facilitates a research, development and extension program on behalf of all Australian melon growers. Through Horticulture Innovation Australia, the Australian melon industry is able to access matched funding from the Australian Government for all R&D activities.

Tenders are released for projects to meet the strategic goals of the industry. Each project that is submitted is assessed on its benefits to the national industry against the objectives of the Australian Melon Industry Strategic Plan.

Research organisations interested in submitting projects are invited to review the industry annual priorities before submitting a proposal.

Use the search facility on the right to find all resources related to a topic.

Solanum fruit fly

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Fusarium root rot

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Food safety for Directors

Good governance guide for directors, executives and business owners. Written for New Zealand but very applicable to Australia.

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Watermelon pollinators

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CGMMV – Improved management options

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CGMMV factsheets compilation

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Improved management of bees and CGMMV

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Improved management for CGMMV

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What’s in the water?

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Strategy into action for a modern melon industry

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Rockmelon food safety

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Postharvest sanitisers and fungicides in a food safety system

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Overview of the Australian melon industry

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Integrated management of viruses through vector control

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Export for Australian melons

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Detering aphids with millet stubble

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Characterising Melon necrotic spot virus

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Farm Biosecurity Planner for the Melon Industry

Make sure that biosecurity threats are kept at bay on your farm. Templates help you implement a Farm Biosecurity Plan.

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Export_Melons in Japan

Toshiya Kobayashi, Euromonitor International discusses the potential for Australian melons in Japan and outlines the requirements of the Japanese melon market.

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Export_Hort Innnovation

Michael Rogers outlines the assistance that Hort innovation provides to exporters.

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Growing Resources

Solanum fruit fly

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Fusarium root rot

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Food safety update

Latest information on food safety in fields and melon packing sheds.

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Farm Biosecurity Planner for the Melon Industry

Make sure that biosecurity threats are kept at bay on your farm. Templates help you implement a Farm Biosecurity Plan.

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Sudden wilt and Gummy Stem Blight

Latest information from Dr Len Tesoriero NSW DPI.

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Latest information on CGMMV

Presentation by Dr Denis Persley QDAF to Ayr growers meeting.

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Main melon varieties in Australia

Main Australian watermelon, rockmelon (cantaloupe), honeydew melon and other types as at June 2017

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CGMMV Farm Biosecurity Checklist

Short checklist to identify where improvements need to be made to on-farm biosecurity and aid in protecting against Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

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Farm Biosecurity Planner for CGMMV control

For growers to plan a specific CGMMV biosecurity for their farm

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Come clean, go clean

For contractors to understand the requirements for good on-farm biosecurity

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Vehicle cleaning factsheet

how to clean down a vehicle for biosecurity purposes

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Using compost safely

This guide describes how fresh produce growers can use compost without affecting their food safety assurance program.

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Property Management Plan for properties infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

The Property Management Plan for properties infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus provides information about eradicating CGMMV from the farm.

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Whitefly viruses in vegetable crops

Silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype is a major global pest and is widespread in northern Australia. In addition to direct damage from feeding, this species is the only carrier of begomoviruses which are common and extremely damaging worldwide.

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Viruses in vegetable crops

Silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype is a major global pest and is widespread in northern Australia. In addition to direct damage from feeding, this species is the only carrier of begomoviruses which are common and extremely damaging worldwide.

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Management of aphid transmitted viruses

The majority of viruses infecting plants are spread by insects, and aphids are the most common group of virus vectors or carriers. All potyviruses (the largest group of plant viruses) are transmitted by aphids.

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Major melon diseases in Australia

This publication includes information on a number of significant melon diseases found in Australia and includes images to assist growers recognise their symptoms. Table 1 lists the significant diseases that are an issue for melon production in Australia.

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Cucurbit viruses

Describes the main viruses present in Queensland:
1. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)
2. Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV)
3. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV).
Lists symptoms and control methods.

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Post-harvest pathology of melons

Explains some of the post-harvest diseases affecting melons.

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Post-harvest management of vegetables

Good post-harvest management extends the time vegetables stay fresh and alive by avoiding damage, limiting water loss and reducing metabolic activity. Poor post-harvest management leads to premature deterioration, and therefore waste and extra costs

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Come Clean Go Clean

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Biosecurity disinfectants

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Melon necrotic spot virus factsheet

Symptoms and signs of Melon necrotic spot virus on melons

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Agronomy of rockmelons

A concise guide to growing rockmelons, focussing on maintaining sugar levels in fruit.

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Vegetable leaf miner

Description of vegetable leafminer and the risk it poses to the Australian melon industry.

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Soil erosion and repairing water storages on farm

Guide to repairing on farm structures after flood events.

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Saving energy in cool stores

Refrigeration is the biggest energy cost for fruit production, storage and packing businesses. On average, 64% of the audited businesses’ electricity was consumed by refrigeration, costing $85,000 a year. However, energy efficiency of refrigeration systems can be improved and costs saved.

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Rockmelon and honeydew information kit Part 9

Manual update.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 8

Visual guide to crop stages.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 7

Contacts and references.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 6

Problem solver.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 5

Key issues.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 4

Growing the crop.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 3

Frequently asked questions about growing practices.

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ROCKMELON AND HONEYDEW INFORMATION KIT PART 2

Deciding whether melons are the crop to grow.

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RIND NECROSIS

Media article from the United States.

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REPORT ON AUSTRALIA’S BIOSECURITY

Summary of biosecurity status in Australia.

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REDUCING CGMMV INFECTION IN ISRAEL

Dealing with soil infected by CGMMV in greenhouses.

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PAPAYA RING SPOT VIRUS FACT SHEET

Frequently asked questions about Papaya Ring Spot Virus and the effects on melon production.

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MONOSPARASCUS ROOT ROT

Information about sudden wilt and vine decline caused by Monosparascus.

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MELON STRATEGIC AGRICHEMICAL REVIEW PROCESS

A review of the crop protectants already used in the melon industry and possible future requirements for managing melon pests & diseases.

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MELON INDUSTRY BIOSECURITY PLAN 2014

National plan to manage biosecurity issues in the Australian melon industry.

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MELON CARD

An explanation of the Melon Card, a workplace health & safety program for farm workers.

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MANAGING THE PRESSURES OF FARMING

Understanding the pressures on farmers after disasters strike.

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MANAGING PESTICIDE RESISTANCE 2015

Understanding how pesticides interact and resistant in pests develops.

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MANAGING CUCURBITS DURING WET WEATHER

Waterlogged soils are deficient in oxygen as the oxygen between soil particles is replaced by water. Oxygen is essential for healthy root growth and the lack of oxygen in soils over a period of time results in root and eventually plant death. As flood damaged crops may have extensive root death, irrigation timing is vital to recovery and to avoid ongoing plant stress.

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LIGHTING IN PACKING SHEDS

Lighting is a vital part of packhouse and grading operations. On average, lighting uses 3% of total electricity. Audits identified that whilst there are opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of lighting, savings will be small.

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HOW DOES CGMMV SPREAD

Examines the mechanism for spread of CGMMV.

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HORTICULTURE SPRAY RISK SURVEY

Examines the risk of spray drift for horticultural industries. The report found that a key issue that needs to be addressed in many areas is land use planning because urban encroachment into rural areas can have impacts on spraying activities, even if only through perceived risk of chemical exposure and complaints of nuisance from noise and machinery.

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GUIDE FOR AUSTRALIAN EXPORTERS

Step by step guide for exporters of plant products.

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FUSARIUM WILT OF MELONS

Brief explanation of Fusarium Wilt in watermelons.

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FOOD SAFETY – WHY FOOD SAFETY IS IMPORTANT

Explains the reasons that food safety is important when producing melons.

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FOOD SAFETY – WASTE MANAGEMENT

Maintaining good waste management prevents human health and food safety issues.

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FOOD SAFETY – SANITISING WASH WATER

Compares different types of sanitising agents including chlorine, ozone, peroxyacetic acid; nylate; stabilised chlorine dioxide; iodine; oxidising water.

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FOOD SAFETY – PACKING IN THE FIELD

Many watermelons are field packed which avoids issues with wash water but it is important to maintain hygiene in field situations.

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FOOD SAFETY – PACKHOUSE AND EQUIPMENT HYGIENE

Maintaining equipment in the packhouse prevents a source for food-borne pathogens to multiply.

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FOOD SAFETY – MONITORING WASHING WATER

How to monitor chlorine levels; pH; water quality and water temperature in wash lines in packhouses.

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FOOD SAFETY – MONITORING CHLORINE IN WASH WATER

Monitoring systems assist in maintaining the sanitation of wash water to ensure that pathogens are controlled in packhouses.

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FOOD SAFETY – MICROBIAL TESTING

When, how and how often should fruit be tested for food-borne pathogens.

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FOOD SAFETY – MELON FOOD SAFETY CHECKLIST

Checklist provides a practical way of understanding the food safety risks on a melon farm.

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FOOD SAFETY – IRRIGATION WATER

The source and quality of irrigation water can impact on the infection levels in fruit.

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FOOD SAFETY – HEALTH AND HYGIENE

Maintaining high levels of human health and sanitation in the field and packhouses is important to prevent cross contamination from humans to fruit.

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FOOD SAFETY – FOODBORNE ILLNESS

An explanation of the illnesses caused by pathogenic infection of fresh food.

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FOOD SAFETY – FERTILISERS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS

Explains the use of organic fertilisers in a food safety program to ensure that these feertilisers do not compromise the food safety of fruit.

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FOOD SAFETY – EVALUATION OF WASH CHEMICALS

Comparison of the available wash systems for melons.

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FOOD SAFETY – COOLING MELONS

The best way to cool field heat form melons without creating food safety problems.

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FOOD SAFETY – COMPARISON OF SANITISERS

Table of sanitation systems for melon packhouses that gives easy reference to the benefits of various systems.

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FOOD SAFETY – COMPARISON OF SANITATION SYSTEMS

Choosing a sanitation system is crucial to preventing food safety issues but which system to choose? This paper discusses the pros and cons of all available sanitation systems.

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FOOD SAFETY – CHARACTERISTICS OF MELONS

What makes melons a target for food safety pathogens.

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FOOD SAFETY – BINS AND BOXES

Maintaining food safety standards in all packaging and transport containers , both in the field and packhouse.

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FOOD SAFETY – ANIMAL PEST MANAGEMENT

Managing pests such as rodents and insects in packing sheds to prevent animal-borne pathogens from affecting melon fruit.

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EXPORT_EXPORTING TO MIDDLE EAST AND ASIA

An overview of Australia’s domestic market and market snapshots of the Middle East, China, South Korea and Japan, examining their domestic markets and vegetable trade with Australia.

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EXOTIC FRUIT FLIES IN TORRES STRAIT

Presentation on different fruit flies that could threaten Australia’s horticultural industries.

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EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED VIRUSES

Report on meeting to discuss the importance of the begomoviruses which are transmitted by the silverleaf whitefly. This group of viruses is a major threat to Australian vegetable, cotton and grain legume industries.

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EMERGENCY PLANT PEST RESPONSE DEED FAQ

A basic explanation of the Emergency Plant Pest response Deed and what it means to growers.

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ELECTRICITY TARIFFS

Explaining the differences in electricity tariffs.

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ELECTRICITY SAVINGS IN PACKING SHEDS

Saving costs with grading and packing lines.

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EFFECT OF GRAFTING ON QUALITY

Presentation from the University of Florida.

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DEALING WITH CGMMV

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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COMPARISON OF FARM MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE

Comparison table of farm management software.

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COME CLEAN, GO CLEAN

Guidelines for vehicle washdown in biosecurity situations.

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CGMMV_SYMPTOMS

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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CGMMV_IN_OTHER_FRUIT

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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CGMMV_FACT_SHEET

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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CGMMV_A SEED PRODUCTION AND COMMERCIAL GROWERS GUIDE

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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CGMMV SPREAD IN ISRAEL AND THE WORLD

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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CGMMV RESEARCH IN ISRAEL

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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CGMMV IN SEEDS

Presentation by Dr Aviv Dombrovsky, Volcani institute, Israel.

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BIOSECURITY GUIDELINES FOR CONTRACTORS

Contractors and their staff have a responsibility to prevent the spread of unwanted pests, such as insects, weeds and diseases when they work on farming properties. Pests can be spread between farming regions or even paddocks, through the movement of machinery, vehicles and staff.
The following simple guidelines will assist contractors to minimise biosecurity risks when working on farms.

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BACTERIAL FRUIT BLOTCH

Explains Bacterial Fruit Blotch, symptoms and treatment.

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Research Reports

FOOD SAFETY FOR DIRECTORS

Good governance guide for directors, executives and business owners. Written for New Zealand but very applicable to Australia..

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WATERMELON POLLINATORS

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CGMMV – IMPROVED MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

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CGMMV FACTSHEETS COMPILATION

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IMPROVED MANAGEMENT OF BEES AND CGMMV

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IMPROVED MANAGEMENT FOR CGMMV

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WHAT’S IN THE WATER?

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STRATEGY INTO ACTION FOR A MODERN MELON INDUSTRY

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ROCKMELON FOOD SAFETY

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EXPORT_CITRUS EXPORTS

David Daniels, Citrus Australia discusses the development of the citrus export industry.

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EXPORT_MELON INDUSTRY EXPORT PLAN

Danny Burrows, APCO International presents the Australian Melon Industry Export Plan.

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MELON VARIETIES IN AUSTRALIA

List of watermelon, rockmelon and honeydew melons grown in Australia as of July 2017.

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BIOSECURITY WASH DOWN DESIGNS

These wash-down designs have been published by Biosecurity Queensland’s Panama TR4 Program to help banana farmers protect themselves from the threat of Panama disease tropical race 4. The information on cleaning, washing and decontaminating vehicles, machinery and equipment is applicable for all farms.

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CGMMV NATIONAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

The National Management Plan provides an overarching framework for management of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and is underpinned by sound scientific risk assessment developed by an expert working group on CGMMV.

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WATERMELON PRICES 2013

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WATERMELON PRICES 2012

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WATERMELON PRICES 2011

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WATERMELON PRICES 2009-2013

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ROCKMELON 2013

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ROCKMELON PRICES 2012

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ROCKMELON PRICES 2011

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MELON PRICES 2011

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HONEYDEW PRICES 2013

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HONEYDEW PRICES 2012

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HONEYDEW PRICES 2011

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WATERMELON

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THE AUSTRALIAN MELON INDUSTRY

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WATERMELON 2013

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ROCKMELON 2013

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PROFILE OF THE AUSTRALIAN MELON INDUSTRY

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POLLINATION IN THE AUSTRALIAN MELON INDUSTRY

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MELON PRODUCTION REGIONS

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MELON INDUSTRY SITUATIONAL REPORT 2009

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MELON INDUSTRY PROFILE

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AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURE STATISTICS HANDBOOK – FRUIT

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AUSTRALIAN SUB-TROPICAL FRUITS

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ROCKMELONS

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VARROA MITE PREPAREDNESS OF POLLINATION DEPENDANT INDUSTRIES.

This report highlights individual industries dependence on honey bee pollination and evaluates the effect a Varroa mite incursion may have on short term and long term pollination services. The report provides eight recommendations that could be employed to mitigate the effect of a Varroa mite incursion and improve pollination dependant industries overall preparedness.

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SURVEY OF FUSARIUM WILT ON WATERMELONS IN AUSTRALIA

Research project to understand the spread of different strains of Fusarium in Australia.

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SCREENING VEGETABLE VARIETIES FROM ASIAN COMPANIES FOR AUSTRALIAN MARKETS

Field trials with new tomato, melon and watermelon varieties in south-east Queensland over 2 years (2011/12 and 2012/13) clearly demonstrated the value of running local variety trials before committing to the large-scale import of seed of new fruit and vegetable varieties. Around 40% of imported melon varieties were not resistant to local races of powdery and downy mildew diseases. A number of other watermelon, melon and tomato varieties proved to be poorly adapted to the new environment here and so were less productive than expected..

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SCOPING STUDY FOR SUSTAINABLE BROADLEAF WEED CONTROL IN CUCURBIT CROPS

Weeds are a significant problem for many Australian cucurbit producers (including in pumpkins, melons, cucumber, and zucchini), given the sprawling nature of cucurbit vines and the lack of registered herbicides suitable for selective control of broadleaf weeds. This report is a first step in identifying the impact of weeds in cucurbit production, and areas in which weed control may be improved.

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PROTECTED CROPPING FOR MELONS

As a response to markets demanding greater diversity of this commodity, growers have experimented with growing a greater variety of fruit types. Galia melons have been evaluated in field crops in North Queensland but yield and quality were reduced by variable climate conditions, foliar diseases, and decaying fruits in contact with soil. Overseas, it is common practice to grow some of these melon types using protective cropping systems. These systems involve growing plants under a frame structure covered with a film or screen material.

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POSTHARVEST PATHOLOGY OF MELONS

Post-harvest diseases of melons – a report from Western Australia.

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POLLINATION AWARE -MELONS

An explanation of the pollination requirements for the Australian melon industry.

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NO-TILL PERMANENT BEDS FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A no-till farming system has been developed for horticultural production, utilizing permanent beds that are not cultivated after initial land preparation.
Cover crops are established on beds, grown to maturity, killed and then flattened into an organic mulch. Commercial crops are directly sown or transplanted into this cover crop residue. This system aims to increase sustainability in relevant horticultural industries through the long-term maintenance of soil health and stability, as well as eliminating reliance on plastic mulch, which is difficult to dispose of, in an environmentally responsible fashion.

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NEONICOTINOIDS FAQ

Information about bees and neonictinoids in the United States..

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NEONICOTINOIDS AND THE HEALTH OF HONEY BEES IN AUSTRALIA

Examines whether bee populations in Australia are in decline.

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NEONICOTINOIDES – UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES

Neonicotinoid pesticides have been identified as connected to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of bees. However, research strongly contradicts this. Research suggests that CCD of managed hives is likely caused by a combination of factors, including the 1987 introduction of the destructive Varroa mite, bee pathogens and the constant stress of transporting hives to new locations by beekeepers..

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NATIVE VEGETATION TO ENHANCE BENEFICIAL INSECTS PART 2

Planting vegetation to encourage native predatory insects that assist in crop management of pests.

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NATIVE VEGETATION TO ENHANCE BENEFICIAL INSECTS PART 1

Planting vegetation to encourage native predatory insects that assist in crop management of pests..

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MELON NECROTIC SPOT VIRUS

Explains Melon Necrotic Spot Virus and the impact that it can have on melon growing..

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MANAGING CGMMV SOILS IN ISRAEL

Research report that explains the way CGMMV is managed in greenhouses in Israel.

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GRAFTING FOR SOIL-BORNE DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Review of literature to determine the benefits of grafting for soil-borne pathogen management..

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FIRST REPORT OF CUCUMBER GREEN MOTTLE MOSAIC VIRUS IN ISRAEL

Report on the identification of necrotic spots on the peduncle of watermelon as a means to successfully identify and eliminate symptomatic watermelon fruits in the field before harvest. The early elimination of low-quality fruits prevents purchasers from refusing or returning produce thus reducing unnecessary costs (harvest, packing, delivery etc.) and helping to protect the growers’ reputation..

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EFFECTS OF POLYSACCHARIDE-BASED EDIBLE COATINGS ON FRESH-CUT MELON

Active edible coating is a novel promising approach for extending shelf life of fresh agricultural products. This method is based on the use of natural components without artificial supplements.

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FDEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF IPM STRATEGIES FOR SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY IN VEGETABLES

This project integrated whitefly parasitoid releases with selective chemicals and best farm management practices. This provides growers with a sustainable and commercially viable IPM program for silverleaf whitefly and insecticide resistance management.

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DEVELOPING A ROCKMELON SUPPLY CHAIN

The project aimed to supply fruit with a Brix of 10% or above, suitable varieties and picking indicators that could accurately identify fruit which meets the quality specification. The project identified the presence of netting around the peduncle of LSL varieties could be used to accurately identify fruit which met the quality specification of more than 10oBrix. These varieties can be stored for at least 2 weeks without adversely affecting Brix or visual quality.

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DECONTAMINATING VIRUSES WITH MILK POWDER

Investigation of milk powder as a control measure for Tobacco Mosaic Virus..

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FCRITICAL TEMPERATURE THRESHOLDS IN HORTICULTURE

A review of the temperature thresholds for a number of major horticultural commodities. Understanding the specific impact of temperature change on horticultural commodities is a necessary step in providing growers with the decision making tools to manage and adapt to climate change..

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CONSUMER REPORT – WHY DO THEY BUY MELONS

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008

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CONSUMER REPORT – WHO IS BUYING WHAT AND WHEN

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008.

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CONSUMER REPORT – WHO BUYS MELONS WINTER AND SUMMER

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008

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CONSUMER REPORT – WHAT ARE THEY BUYING AND WHEN

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008

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CONSUMER REPORT – REASONS FOR NOT PURCHASING MELONS

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008

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CONSUMER REPORT – HOW MUCH ARE THEY BUYING

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008

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CONSUMER REPORT – HOW CONSUMERS CHOOSE FRUIT

Consumer research in the melon industry 2008

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CONSUMER REPORT – FULL REPORT

Consumer research in the melon industry 2007

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COMPARISON OF BIODEGRADABLE MULCH PRODUCTS

A number of products have been evaluated during this project, to identify potential replacements for polyethylene mulch films in irrigated vegetable production. These replacement films need to have the same desirable traits, with the benefits of no disposal issues and costs..

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CHARACTERISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF FUSARIUM WILT OF WATERMELON-MILESTONE REPORT

Progress report on characterising different Fusarium races in Australia.

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CARBON AMELIORATION IN HORTICULTURE

Biochar is a new, high-carbon soil amendment that has shown promise in improving soil and increasing yields in crops. Biochar is created by heating organic biomass, such as chipped tree prunings, garden waste, chicken manure, rice husks and other agricultural by-products at high temperatures and with no oxygen. Preliminary research into biochar application to soil has found improvements to soil structure, fertiliser and water efficiency. Biochar increases soil carbon immediately after addition, and studies have estimated that biochar will remain in soil for hundreds of years..

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BIOCHAR – IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY

This report presents findings of a desktop review into biochar, covering potential applications, benefits, costs and risks, and future research required to realise the agricultural productivity improvement and environmental sustainability potential of biochar. This report focuses on production and application of biochar to soils to improve soil function and the ancillary benefits that may arise. Use of biochar as a way to abate greenhouse gases and sequester carbon is discussed in only general terms..

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BEST PRACTICES FOR IRRIGATION AND FERTILISER MANAGEMENT ON SANDY SOILS

Guidelines for managing irrigation in windy conditions on sandy soils..

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BEST PRACTICE MANUAL FOR NO-TILL PERMANENT BEDS

Practical guidelines for the implementation of a permanent bed system for vegetable production..

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